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Cinnamon Cinnamon has many medicinal uses including appetite stimulation, treatment of arthritis, diabetes, reducing inflammation, and helpi...


Cinnamon has many medicinal uses including appetite stimulation, treatment of arthritis, diabetes, reducing inflammation, and helping with dyspepsia.  Cinnamon can be used for treating sore throats, cough, indigestion, abdominal cramps, intestinal spasms, nausea, flatulence, and diarrhea. Cinnamon can also slow down the spoilage of food spoilage.  Research studies have found that cinnamon has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, and antitumor properties. The phenolic constituents of CZ are likely to be responsible for the anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging activity observed. Cinnamon extracts are known to increase Tristetraprolin mRNA and protein levels, Tristetraprolins have anti-inflammatory effects due to destabilizing of pro-inflammatory mRNA (Ranasinghe, 2013). This could be the reason for the anti-inflammatory actions observed. The anti-microbial action is considered to arise mainly from the potential of hydrophobic essential oils to disrupt the bacterial cell membrane and its structures which leads to ion leakage (Senhaji, 2007). Antibacterial assays of the column chromatography fractions indicated that cinnamaldehyde is the primary compound responsible for major antibacterial activity (Senhaji, 2007). Trans-cinnamaldehyde is also known to inhibit bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Mishra, 2008).

Lead compounds present in cinnamon have the characteristics like molecules linkage association, binding intensity, and therapeutic characterization to the protein of covid 19. They have the capacity of hydrophobic and high hydrogen bonding with protein. Bioinformatics and Autodoc-Vina show that cinnamon has potent compounds against COVID-19 MianProteases and Spike protein plays a vital role against Corona Virus. The silico analysis demonstrates that that cinnamon has stable molecules against the main protease and spikes protein. The combined results show that pave-tannin C1 and tenofolin are the compounds that have enough binding tendency with main protease and spike proteins. Relatively, paven-tannin C1has a strong ability to bind these proteins (Prasanth et al., 2020).


Sana Makki ( Cassia angustifolia)

Senna is the ornamental plants of the family Fabaceae. Senna (botanical name Cassia Angustifolia) is a plant best known for its medicinal properties. It comprises dianthrone glycosides (compounds consisting of sugar molecules bound to other molecules), as well as mucilage (a thick, gluey substance), tannins, and flavonoids (Sultana, Ahmad, Zafar, Khan, & Arshad, 2012). There have been ancient use of the drug for its laxative/purgative action. The plant is located in the tropics. Sennosides A& B is a derivative of anthraquinones at 2.5% minimal concentration.  Leaves of the plants have been used for laxative/purgative action by pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, and pediatric gastroenterologists. Senna is described as a safe option to treat constipation. There have been some media reports of the use of Senna in Pakistan for the prophylaxis or the treatment of Covid-19 infection. Governor of the Sindh Province, Pakistan has shared his experience of the use of senna (Sanna Makki) by himself when he was a Covid-19 patient and has claimed before media the cure of disease symptoms with the help of Sanna Makki and ginger water (Hussain et al., 2020).

Medical professionals have described such news for of using Senna in Covid-19 as unproven, baseless and misleading and warned the public not to use the herb to avoid unintended side effects that outweigh some of its health benefits. Word “Senna” was combined with the word “Covid-19” using the AND boolean and searching the results at Pubmed advanced database. There was none retrieval of clinical evidence regarding the use and effectiveness of Senna in the Covid-19 infection. Only two articles were retrieved from the search that was unrelated to the clinical use of Senna.  There has been no availability of any peer-reviewed or published clinical description regarding the use of senna in the Covid-19. The drug has been approved by FDA for its use in constipation/laxative action and is included among the Over Counter (OTCs) Drugs requiring no prescription.4 Gastrointestinal symptoms have been reported due to Covid-19 and have been included in the symptoms of the disease. The use of laxatives in GIT symptoms can synergize the motility leading to diarrheal symptoms and dehydration affecting the electrolyte balance of the patients.  Loss of nutrients in diarrhea and vomiting can also reduce the immunity of patients reducing the powerful natural defense of the body versus the Covid-19 (Hussain et al., 2020).

 It has been recommendations of American herbal products associations (AHPA) regarding the labeling instructions of the senna leave products to not use them if having diarrhea or abdominal pain and requiring the consultation of health care provider for use in pregnant and nursing mothers as the constituents of senna irritate the bowl linings for laxative action. Medicinal plants have common anti-inflammatory properties in providing symptomatic relief in common cold, fever, and sore throat. The myth of senna use in Covid-19 has started from such bases. However green tea, honey, etc can be safely used in such symptoms for the much better desirable antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties than with Senna (Hussain et al., 2020).

 Use of Senna in Covid-19 patients has been strongly discouraged due to its enormous side effects like diarrhea, water loss, electrolyte imbalance, and hypokalemia.  Such side effects can be harsh for those patients already in critical conditions. There have been many reported interactions of senna with many drugs and it is not suited for heart, liver, and kidney patients. Thereby the use of Senna remains unpredictable and the risks can outweigh the benefits.  Senna can also not be used for a long time due to the possibility of its dependency on laxatives. WHO has encouraged clinical investigations to find safe and effective herbs in the treatment of Covid-19. Senna leaves may not be used for the prophylaxis or treatment of Covid-19 without having any sufficient clinical data as the drug is a potent laxative and can raise the complications of Covid-19 patients instead of  Benefits by augmenting diarrhea and other Gastrointestinal problems (Hussain et al., 2020). Further research is needed in this field.


Allium sativum, garlic in English, belongs to the Alliaceae family (Delaha, 1985). Garlic is a plant having medicinal properties and have antiviral effects can be regarded as an alternative to vaccination or at least can be added to the vaccination programs (de Wit, 2014).  For thousands of years, garlic has been used as a medication for common colds, influenza, and other kinds of infections (Najjaa, Neffati, Zouari, & Ammar, 2007; Romeilah, Fayed, & Mahmoud, 2010). The oil is also proven to be conducive to hypoglycemia, hypotension, antithrombotic, immunomodulatory, and prebiotic therapy. Besides, allicin is a typical reactive sulfur species found in the essential oil (Chekki, Snoussi, Hamrouni, & Bouzouita, 2014).

The sulfur content in the garlic make it antiviral and cures for disease, so entire garlic oil is appropriate for the prevention and treatment of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Thuy et al., 2020). It inhibits the ACE2 protein is of great significance to the orientation of using the garlic essential oil in the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 in specific and other viruses causing flu or pneumonia in general. Results show that the effect of the garlic essential oil on the virus-host receptor (ACE2) inhibition and SARS-CoV-2 resistance. Therefore, it is possible to use each compound in garlic essential oil or the whole essential oil system to act simultaneously on the ACE2 protein and the PDB6LU7 protein (Thuy et al., 2020).

The compounds in the garlic essential oil inhibits the ACE2 protein, leading the virus to lose the host receptor and attacking the protein the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 at the same time. This prevents protein maturation of the virus and the spread of infection. Docking simulation suggests the active binding site of most active compounds in garlic essential oil with the ACE2 protein and the PDB6LU7 protein. From the analysis of the docking data, it is revealed that 17 (T1−T17) out of 18 compounds of the garlic essential oil are capable of inhibiting ACE2 and resisting SARS-CoV-2 and that the total content of these 17 compounds accounts for 99.4% (Thuy et al., 2020).


The pharmacokinetics and toxicity study showed that Gingerol the active compound of ginger had good drug-likeness and could induce minimal toxicity in humans. It is evident from the molecular docking analysis that the selected compound Gingerol have a favorable binding affinity towards the proteases. Further experimental studies are therefore recommended to prove the efficacy of this Phyto-compound against the entry and replication of coronavirus (Oso et al., 2020).



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